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Memahami Kalimat Pasif (Passive Voice)

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informasitips.com – Meskipun tidak umum digunakan dalam kalimat, kalimat pasif atau passive voice sering kali membingungkan karena pemakaiannya yang membutuhkan gabungan antara be dan past participle (V III). Sebelum dapat mengubah kalimat aktif menjadi kalimat pasif, kita harus terlebih dulu mengenal bentuk kalimat aktif yang bisa diubah menjadi kalimat pasif karena tidak semua kalimat aktif bisa diubah menjadi kalimat pasif. Seperti apakah bentuk kalimat aktif tersebut?

Kata Kerja Transitif dan Intransitif

Perlu diingat bahwa hanya kalimat yang mengandung kata kerja transitiflah yang bisa dibuat menjadi kalimat pasif. Kata kerja transitif adalah kata kerja yang diikuti obyek, sedangkan kata kerja intransitif adalah kata kerja yang tidak diikuti obyek. Sebagai contoh:

Kalimat Pasif Bahasa Inggris

sumber gambar: votebits.com

  • Kata kerja transitif

    SVO
    Bobmailedthe letter
    Mr. Leesignedthe check
    A catkilledthe bird
  • Kata kerja intransitif

    SVO
    An accidenthappened
    Johncameto our house
    Isleptwell last night

Dalam contoh kata kerja transitif di atas, kalimat tersebut bisa diubah menjadi bentuk pasif menjadi:

AKTIF : Bob mailed the letter.
PASIF : The letter was mailed by Bob.

Sedangkan dalam contoh kata kerja intransitif di atas, kalimat tersebut tidak dapat diubah menjadi kalimat pasif.

AKTIF : An accident happened.
PASIF : -
TIDAK TEPAT : An accident was happened.

Bentuk Kalimat Pasif

Untuk membuat kalimat pasif, diperlukan be + Past Participle atau kata kerja bentuk ketiga (verb III). Be bisa dalam berbagai macam bentuk, tergantung tenses kalimat yang digunakan, di antaranya: am, is, are, was, were, has been, have been, dan sebagainya.

Berikut merupakan bentuk kalimat pasif untuk masing-masing tenses dan modals:

  • Simple Tense

    S + be (is, am, are, was, were) + V III

    TensesKalimat AktifKalimat Pasif
    PresentThe teacher helps meI am helped by the teacher
    PastThe teacher helped meI was helped by the teacher
    FutureThe teacher will help meI will be helped by the teacher
    The teacher is going to help meI am going to be helped by the teacher
  • Continuous Tense

    S + be (is, am, are, was, were) + being + V III

    TensesKalimat AktifKalimat Pasif
    PresentThe teacher is helping meI am being helped by the teacher
    PastThe teacher was helping meI was being helped by the teacher
    FutureThe teacher will be helping meI will be being helped by the teacher
  • Perfect Tense

    S + has/have/had + been + V III

    TensesKalimat AktifKalimat Pasif
    PresentThe teacher has helped meI have been helped by the teacher
    PastThe teacher had helped meI had been helped by the teacher
    FutureThe teacher will have helped meI will have been helped by the teacher
  • Perfect Continuous Tense

    S + has/have/had + been + being + V III

    TensesKalimat AktifKalimat Pasif
    PresentThe teacher has been helping meI have been being helped by the teacher
    PastThe teacher had been helping meI had been being helped by the teacher
    FutureThe teacher will have been helping meI will have been being helped by the teacher
  • Modals

    S + modals + be + V III

    Kalimat AktifKalimat Pasif
    The teacher will help meI will be helped by the teacher
    The teacher can help meI can be helped by the teacher
    The teacher should help meI should be helped by the teacher
    The teacher ought to help meI ought to be helped by the teacher
    The teacher must help meI must be helped by the teacher
    The teacher has to help meI has to be helped by the teacher
    The teacher may help meI may be helped by the teacher
    The teacher might help meI might be helped by the teacher

Penggunaan ‘By’

Perhatikan contoh-contoh di bawah ini:

These shoes were made by my uncleKata ‘by’ digunakan dalam kalimat pasif ketika seseorang yang melakukan kegiatan tersebut penting untuk disebutkan/diketahui. Dalam contoh di samping, by my aunt merupakan informasi penting.
  • Those shoes were made in Brazil. (by someone)

  • Spanish is spoken in Mexico. (by people)

  • That house was built in 1987. (by someone)

  • Rice is grown in Indonesia. (by people)
Beberapa kalimat pasif tidak menggunakan kata ‘by’ ketika informasi seseorang/orang yang melakukan kegiatan tidak begitu penting atau tidak diketahui siapa tepatnya yang melakukan kegiatan tersebut.

Semoga bermanfaat!

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